Health Promotion Plan
The prevalence rate of non-communicable diseases in the modern world has been increasing significantly over the past few years. The increasing prevalence is largely attributed to the impacts of lifestyle and behavioral risk factors among the population. Some of the risk factors include smoking, alcohol abuse, and minimal engagement in physical activity, and obesity. Nurses and other healthcare providers have critical roles to play in ensuring that the health needs of those at risk and affected by non-communicable health problems are addressed. They educate the population on the ways of living healthier lifestyles and minimizing the health risks of their behaviors. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to explore the issue of tobacco use among adults and agreed goals that can guide the desired behavioral and lifestyle interventions.
Analysis of Community Health Concern
Tobacco use is one of the public health concerns being experienced in America. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reports that almost 14 of every 100 adults aged 18 years and above in the US smoked cigarettes in 2019. The estimates translated into the fact that 34.1 million adults were active smokers of cigarettes in the USA in 2019. The above rate also represented a decline from 20.9% in 2005 to 14.0% in the year 2019. The decline in rates translated into the fact that the rate of adult smokers who quit smoking increased during this period. The rate of smoking in America is reported to be higher in men when compared to women. The high rate can be seen from the statistics that 15 out of every 100 adult male were smokers while 13 in every 100 women smoked in 2019. The age profile of the smokers shows that adults aged 25-44 and 45-64 years lead with the highest rate of tobacco users. In terms of ethnicities, the rate of tobacco use was highest among the non-Hispanic American Indians and non-Hispanic other races. The lowest rate of tobacco use was reported among the non-Hispanic Asians. The level of education was also found to have an effect on tobacco use. For example, people with general and certificate education were found to be the highest users of tobacco in the US in 2019. The additional statistics shows that annual household income, marital status, sexual orientation and health insurance coverage are critical predictors of tobacco use in the US (CDC, 2020). The leading type of tobacco products that the adults consume in the US include cigarettes (14.0%), e-cigarettes (4.5%), cigars (3.6%), smokeless tobacco (2.4%), and pipes (1.0%) (Cornelius, 2020).
Why the Community Health Concern is Important
The issue of tobacco use among adults in America is important because of a number of reasons. According to Cornelius (2020), tobacco use is the leading contributor of preventable disease as well as mortality in the US. Tobacco use also contributes to premature mortality and disability among the US adults. The current estimates are that at least 480000 deaths occur due to tobacco use. As a result, tobacco use contributes to about 1 in every 5 deaths that are reported in America (CDC, 2020). Tobacco use is also associated with a number of health problems. According to the CDC, smoking is attributed to health problems that include cancer, stroke, heart disease, diabetes, lung diseases, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Smoking has also been attributed to other health problems that include chronic bronchitis, emphysema, rheumatoid arthritis, and tuberculosis (CDC, 2017). Besides active smoking, second hand smoking also has adverse health effects. People predisposed to second hand smoking have been shown to be highly at a risk of the above health problems as well as premature mortality. The deaths due to second hand smoking among non-smoking adults is estimated to be 41000, with 400 deaths among infants being reported on an annual basis. Infants are highly predisposed to health problems that include sudden infant death syndrome and acute respiratory infections that may cause death among them.
Tobacco use has also been associated with the development of ocular problems. The risk for ocular problems such as age-related macular degeneration, ischemic optic neuropathy, glaucoma, and retinal vain occlusion have been shown to be high in smokers when compared to non-smokers (Yang et al., 2019). There is also the evidence that tobacco use has an effect on dental health. Accordingly, tobacco use causes considerable discoloration of the dental composite resin that predisposes users to dental health problems (Zhao et al., 2017). The socioeconomic effects of tobacco use are also evident. Patients incur significant costs in seeking the care that they need in managing the health problems associated with tobacco use. Patients and their significant others also lose their productivity due to the increased need for hospital visits and hospitalizations alongside absenteeism due to seeking the care needed for managing the health problems. There is also the decline in the quality of life among tobacco users (Jones et al., 2020). Based on the above health effects, tobacco use should be explored to promote the health of the public and those at risk.
Agreed Health Goals
A meeting held with adults who use tobacco showed that most of them lacked the knowledge about the health risks and prevention of the health effects of tobacco use and abuse. The lack of knowledge increases their risk of engaging in unhealthy behaviors such as alcohol and tobacco use. It was therefore agreed that an effective intervention that could help address the health needs of the adults that use alcohol was educating them on the effects, prevention and management of tobacco use and abuse. The goals that were agreed included the following;
- By the end of the educational session, adults who use tobacco should be able to name the risk factors associated with tobacco use
- By the end of the educational session, adults who use tobacco should be aware of the effects of tobacco use
- By the end of the educational session, adults who use tobacco should be able to state the ways in which tobacco use can be managed
- By the end of the educational session, adults who use tobacco should be able to identify their potential social support systems they can utilize to overcome tobacco use
- By the end of the year, the rates of tobacco use in the region should decline by 10%
Overall, tobacco use is a critical public health concern among adults in the US. Tobacco use is associated with negative health effects that include diseases such as cancer and diabetes. The use of tobacco among the adults in the US is high. Therefore, public health interventions that aim at raising awareness and promoting behavioral change among those affected and at risk should be implemented.